England’s first constitution

May – June 1264 The battle won, Simon quickly secured the surrender of Henry and Edward by agreeing to two […]

Never to perjurers and apostates

1263 The turmoil resulted in much spoliation of property, the ruffians playing a major role in it, and the demands […]

More arbitration, more disaffection

1262 When the two sides could not agree on any amendments to the Provisions, the arbitrator, Richard of Cornwall, ruled […]

The king’s privations

1258 – 1259 At this point all eyes turned to Rome and Paris. The pope had threatened to excommunicate Henry […]

All in the family

1254 Modern historians tend to side with Henry in this affair, suggesting he had every reason to believe Alfonso was […]

Maker and lover of strife

1252 A humiliated and insulted Henry called his governor a “maker and lover of strife” and ordered him to observe […]

The rights of common people

1248 Meanwhile the real warfare was in the east. The Mongols had swept through Poland and Hungary before turning south […]

The king should be locked up

1242 Henry’s expedition to recover Poitou was a spectacular failure. Caught off guard by Louis’ aggressiveness at the Charente River […]

Another boy king

1241 Like Henry, Louis IX (1214 – 1270) had been a boy king, crowned at the age of 12 after […]

Enter the Lusignans

1242 This time the conflict was instigated by Henry’s mother, Isabella d’Angoulême. She was just a teenager when King John […]