The king’s privations

1258 – 1259 At this point all eyes turned to Rome and Paris. The pope had threatened to excommunicate Henry […]

The third hour of the third day

1258 Henry urged Richard to accept the crown of Germany to avoid the appearance of weakness in the face of […]

Introducing Crouchback

1257 The rout of papal forces continued, as did Rustand’s exactions. The clergy was left isolated until the king made […]

Fool’s gold

1257 For his part, Henry started collecting gold, which he would need to finance an army in Sicily. Frederick had […]

Bankrolling the papal army

1254 The other piece of business the king concluded while in Gascony had to do with Sicily. Considered a rich […]