King Henry III, Eleanor of Provence, Simon and Eleanor de Montfort – Their struggle over monarchy and parliament in 13th century England

Edward joins the movement

1259 – 1260 At the opening of parliament in October, a group calling itself the ‘community of the bachelors of […]

Cracks in the opposition

1259 In January, two years after he was elected King of the Romans, Richard prepared to return home. The barons […]

The king’s privations

1258 – 1259 At this point all eyes turned to Rome and Paris. The pope had threatened to excommunicate Henry […]

The new faith

1258 Henry’s years of misrule were seemingly at an end. The provisions adopted at Oxford were akin to an unwritten […]

The third hour of the third day

1258 Henry urged Richard to accept the crown of Germany to avoid the appearance of weakness in the face of […]

Another king in the family

1257 Earlier in that disastrous year Richard left for Aachen to be crowned King of the Romans, which was a […]

The lord Edward

1257 The Lusignans were despised for their arrogance and lawlessness, not least by Queen Eleanor. She saw these ill-bred in-laws […]

Introducing Crouchback

1257 The rout of papal forces continued, as did Rustand’s exactions. The clergy was left isolated until the king made […]

Fool’s gold

1257 For his part, Henry started collecting gold, which he would need to finance an army in Sicily. Frederick had […]

The poor and needy come second

1255 The deal called for the crown of Sicily to go to Henry’s ten-year-old son Edmund in return for money […]

Red hats and torture

The former Sinibaldo Fieschi, Innocent IV despised Frederick II and Robert Grosseteste in equal measure. He is remembered for introducing […]

Bankrolling the papal army

1254 The other piece of business the king concluded while in Gascony had to do with Sicily. Considered a rich […]

Blood money

1255 Six months earlier Henry had sold the custody of the Jews to Richard so that he might “disembowel those […]

Jew’s Court

Known as Jew’s Court, this house in Lincoln was long considered the scene of the crime. In 1910, the owner […]

A boy named Hugh

1255 On 31 July a fatherless boy named Hugh disappeared in the city of Lincoln. Told he was last seen […]

All in the family

1254 Modern historians tend to side with Henry in this affair, suggesting he had every reason to believe Alfonso was […]

Eleanor’s parliament

1254 Before leaving, Henry appointed his wife Eleanor to rule in his stead with Richard serving as her adviser. Their […]

The third Eleanor

1254 It had been Henry’s intention to come to Gascony and show that it could be ruled with peace and […]

Maker and lover of strife

1252 A humiliated and insulted Henry called his governor a “maker and lover of strife” and ordered him to observe […]

An absolute mess

1250 Henry’s policy in Gascony was an absolute mess. The province was nominally Richard’s, but now, at the queen’s insistence, […]