King Henry III, Eleanor of Provence, Simon and Eleanor de Montfort – Their struggle over monarchy and parliament in 13th century England

The Disinherited

1265 – 1267 Henry was again the ‘illustrious king of England’ when he summoned Parliament to appear before him in […]

Edward closes the trap

June – August 1265 Foolishly or not, Simon had retained the services of Gilbert’s brother Thomas as a sign of […]

The Great Parliament

December 1264 – March 1265 The peak of Simon’s power came in December 1264 when he sent out a summons […]

Just like his father

September 1264 – December 1264 The legate’s interference put enormous pressure on the English prelates who had thrown in their […]

England’s first constitution

May – June 1264 The battle won, Simon quickly secured the surrender of Henry and Edward by agreeing to two […]

The road to Lewes

1264 As usual, the initial fighting broke out in the west. Henry de Montfort scored an early triumph by bottling […]

Unmindful of his own honour

January 1264 A truce was to be observed during the course of arbitration. Henry being Henry, he ordered Roger Mortimer, […]

Never to perjurers and apostates

1263 The turmoil resulted in much spoliation of property, the ruffians playing a major role in it, and the demands […]

On the brink

1263 Edward was the first to return. Scolded by his father for “indolence and wantoness” while the Welsh ravaged the […]

More arbitration, more disaffection

1262 When the two sides could not agree on any amendments to the Provisions, the arbitrator, Richard of Cornwall, ruled […]

Edward joins the movement

1259 – 1260 At the opening of parliament in October, a group calling itself the ‘community of the bachelors of […]

Cracks in the opposition

1259 In January, two years after he was elected King of the Romans, Richard prepared to return home. The barons […]

The king’s privations

1258 – 1259 At this point all eyes turned to Rome and Paris. The pope had threatened to excommunicate Henry […]

The new faith

1258 Henry’s years of misrule were seemingly at an end. The provisions adopted at Oxford were akin to an unwritten […]

The third hour of the third day

1258 Henry urged Richard to accept the crown of Germany to avoid the appearance of weakness in the face of […]

Another king in the family

1257 Earlier in that disastrous year Richard left for Aachen to be crowned King of the Romans, which was a […]

The lord Edward

1257 The Lusignans were despised for their arrogance and lawlessness, not least by Queen Eleanor. She saw these ill-bred in-laws […]

Introducing Crouchback

1257 The rout of papal forces continued, as did Rustand’s exactions. The clergy was left isolated until the king made […]